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NMap tutorial for beginners-part 2 Print E-mail

NMap tutorial for beginners-part 2

 

 

It’s assumed that you are root. Many options won’t work or better to say will switch to other kind of scans if you are not root. And sometimes it may even not give any warning before doing that. So beware!!! You may get logged.

 

Let’s start it with various PING features available with Nmap.

PING is a necessary evil. I’ll explain it later on.

 

Nmap Ping Methods:

 

First thing which should always be kept in mind is that Ping options are used to identify whether remote machine is up or not. Determining the open ports and services running on them is not the headache of Ping scan. Hence do your best using various Ping options to determine whether remote machine is up or down or being protected by some firewall.

 

Note: If user doesn’t specifies a particular ping type, an ICMP Echo Request (-PE) followed by TCP ACK Ping (-PA) (by default on port 80 because most packet filters allow port 80) takes place. You can confirm it looking up the default ping options selected in the GUI Nmap.

 

Nmap provides various kinds of PING options and note that all of them start with the letter ‘P’. Various combinations of these Ping options can be used in order to increase the chances of getting across packet filters and firewalls.

 

  • -PE      ICMP Echo Request

It’s simply the ICMP Echo request and corresponding ICMP Echo reply packet and is best to determine the availability of machine. Drawback is that it’s the most common protocol filtered by firewalls/packet filters. If you get response to this ping, it’ll indicate that there is very less filtering between you and your destination.

 

  • -PA[port number]       TCP ACK Ping

Helpful to determine filtered/unfiltered ports, hence useful when there is some firewall protecting the machine.

 

#nmap –vv 192.168.0.1 –PA23,110

 

Here in this example, NMap will ping port 23 and 110 of the remote machine with ACK packets. If the remote machine is up or unfiltered, it will respond with RST packet. But in case it’s down or ports are filtered, there will be no response and hence the scan will stop. Hence in order to get through firewall, try different ports.

If no port is specified, port number 80 will be pinged (which is generally the best one to ping as most packet filters allow traffic to port number 80).

 

These two above specified Ping scans run by default when you don’t specify any kind of Ping scan.

 

 

  • -PS[port number]        TCP SYN Ping

Its functionality is same as SYN scan. Nmap machine sends SYN packet to remote machine. Open port will respond with ACK/SYN and closed will respond with RST. Hence can be used to determine whether remote machine is up or not. Ports can be specified, 80 is the default one.

 

#nmap –vv –n 192.168.0.1 –PS           (will ping port number 80)

#nmap –vv –n 192.168.0.1 –PS23,110            (will ping 23 and 110 number ports)

 

 

  • -PU[port number]       TCP UDP Ping

By default it sends UDP frames at port number 31338. UDP frames sent to closed ports responds with “ICMP port unreachable” message. If the remote port is open, it may or may not respond, because many UDP applications don’t send a response to any random incoming frame. Hence it should be tried to send the UDP frame to closed port. It heavily relies on ICMP packets, so if ICMP is filtered there may be no response to the UDP ping.

 

#nmap –vv –n 192.168.0.1 –PU           (default port is 31338)

#nmap –vv –n 192.168.0.1 –PU<any port which you think would be closed>

 

 

  • -PP      ICMP Timestamp Ping

ICMP Timestamp ping is used to allow two separate systems to coordinate their time-of-day clocks.

Avoid using it as NTP (Network Time Protocol) has replaced it. Hence Timestamp packets may raise eyebrows of trained eyes.

Moreover it doesn’t works properly when firewall is there as it relies heavily on ICMP.

 

  • -PM     ICMP Address Mask Ping

It operated by sending an ICMP address mask request to a remote device. Most modern operating systems and routers will not respond to this request, hence this ICMP ping type doesn’t work on most modern systems.

Hence forget it.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion:

If some firewall or packet filter is there on the remote device, better choice would be a non-ICMP based ping type.

 

 

  • -PO      Don’t Ping

If you know that the remote machine is up and running, you can use this option to remain a bit stealthier. Hence direct scanning of the target will start without pinging the machine. It should be used when using Decoys, otherwise ping packets will reach target from your machine only and from none of the decoys. Hence the purpose of using Decoys will loose its essence.

But as I told “Ping is a necessary evil”, Nmap gather some important timing information from the ping process, so disabling the ping process will put nmap at a disadvantage when the scan begins. Actually it determines the accurate round-trip-time during ping.

 

 

 

 

 

Something about operating system fingerprinting

 

The usage of –O has been discussed in the 1st part of this tutorial. It gives the information of the operating system running on the remote machine which is must before launching some kind of exploit.

For this Nmap need at least one open and one closed port. If it doesn’t get, it may not give the correct results.

 

  • --osscan_limit

This option will abort OS fingerprinting if both open and closed ports are not available, hence will save a hell lot of time instead of getting incorrect results.

I personally feel that third party tools should also be used to get the correct results about the remote machines operating system.

 

 

  • -A (Additional, Advanced, and Aggressive)

Its combination of “-O” and “-sV” i.e. operating system fingerprinting and service version scan

 

#nmap –vv –n 192.168.0.1 –O –sV

is same as

#nmap –vv –n 192.168.0.1 -A

 

 

 

 

Inclusion and Exclusion of Hosts and Ports

 

Sometimes it may be the scenario that you don’t want to scan particular IP address or range of IP addresses. E.g. Government IP’s or IP’s of routers and switches of your network etc.

So here we have few options for that:

 

  • Exclude Targets (--exclude <host 1, host 2, host 3….>)

The IP addresses specified will not be scanned by Nmap.

 

#nmap –vv –n –sS 192.168.0.1/24 --exclude 192.168.0.2-4, 192.168.0.7

 

This will scan the whole subnet except 192.168.0.2, 192.168.0.3, 192.168.0.4, and 192.168.0.7.

 

 

 

  • Exclude Targets in File (--excludefile <file name>)

Here instead of specified the IP addresses which must not be scanned, user has to maintain a file including the list of IP address, one IP address per line.

 

#nmap –vv –n -sS 192.168.*.* --excludefile filename.txt

 

Content of filename.txt could be as following:

192.168.0.1-4              (exclude 192.168.0.1 à 192.168.0.4)

192.168.3-5.*              (exclude 192.168.3.0 à 192.168.5.255)

192.168.6.*                 (exclude 192.168.6.0 à 192.168.6.255)

etc.

 

The benefit of –excludefile option is that a permanent exclusion file can be made including IP address of organizations/individuals whom you would never like to scan These IP address may not be the part of current scan, but it won’t harm making such a permanent exclusion file and upgrading it.

 

--excludefile and –exclude options can’t be used on the same scan.

 

 

  • Read Targets from File (-iL <inputfilename>)

Instead of supplying IP address at the command line of Nmap scan, a file can be maintained containing IP addresses separated by tabs, spaces, or by separate lines.

 

When this option is used, any IP address specified on the command line will be ignored without any warning message.

 

#nmap –vv –n –iL input.txt

#nmap –vv –n –iL input.txt 192.168.1.1            (Here 192.168.1.1 will be ignored)

 

If host exclusion options, --exclude or –excludefile, are used with –iL option, the excluded addresses will override any inclusions on the command line or file.

 

 

 

          Scanning Random number of Targets

 

  • -iR <number of hosts to be scanned>

 

You may be looking for just web server’s or some other server’s world wide, i.e.          Random machines running a particular service on a particular port only.

E.g. telent at port number 23

SMTP at port number 25

Web server at port number 80 etc.

 

#nmap –vv –n –iR 100 –p 80

scan 100 random machines for port number 80

 

#nmap –vv –n –iR 0 –p 80       (that’s zero and not capital ‘O’)

Scan “unlimited” number of machines for port number 80. So here you see, Nmap will scan thousands and thousands of machines. Scan won’t begin to report any result until 500 hosts are identified. Hence run this type of scan with one of Nmap’s logging option (will be discussed soon)

 

#nmap –sS –PS80 –iR 0 –p 80

It will run a TCP SYN scan using a SYN ping on port 80 to an unlimited number           of random IP addresses. The SYN scan only scans port 80.

 

-iL, --exclude, --excludefile, none of them can be used with –iR option.

 

  • --randomize_hosts

      #nmap –vv –randomize_hosts –p 80 192.168.*.*        

     

As its clear from the scan command, nmap will randomize the hosts to be scanned.

-iL, --exclude, and –excludefile can be used with this option.

 

      Groups of 2,048 hosts at a time are randomly chosen, and hence makes entire scan       less conspicuous when examining traffic patterns.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Various Logging Options

 

You may want to store the output of Nmap. Reasons may be any of the following:

1.      You are scanning hundreds of machines, so don’t want to stare at monitor for all the time.

2.      You are starting the scan in night and would like to see the result in morning.

3.      You may want to keep the records for future reference

4.      You want to pause/stop Nmap and at later time would like to resume the scan.

            …..and many more reasons could be there.

 

So here are the various logging options for NMap

 

 

  • Normal Format:

      -oN <log file name>

 

      It saves a similar view of the output that’s displayed on the screen during an nmap          scan. No need to assign any extension to the output file. It will have .nmap          extension.

 

  • XML Format

      -oX <log file name>  

 

      It presents the output of Nmap in very nice format in any browser. Actually Nmap         includes an XSL file that translates the XML information into a viewable HTML        format that can be displayed in any browser.

      The output file will have .xml extension.

 

  • Grepable Format

      -oG <log file name>  

 

      The output file will have .gnmap extension.

 

  • All Formats

      -oA <base file name>

     

      Will produce three output files, Normal, XML and Grepable.   

      Suppose the name of base file is target, so you will get the following three files:

    1. target.nmap
    2. target.xml
    3. target.gnmap

 

  • Script Kiddie Format

      -oS <log file name>

     

      Output would be in script Kiddie language

 

 

 

Resuming the scan

 

It’s a good thing to do. You may be in the midst of a long scan when you have to turn off your computer or power failure etc. Can be interrupted using control-C key combination.

Suppose you are scanning a subnet of 100 machines and currently machine number 45 is getting scanned when you stop the scan. When you resume the scan next time, all the machines which were scanned before machine number 45 won’t be scanned again. But the scanning of machine 45 will start from scratch again as it was interrupted in between.

Hence do not use resuming option when you are scanning only one machine.

 

--resume <log file name>

 

This log file has to be either in Normal format (-oN) or Grepable (-oG) format. XML output won’t work with it.

 

If a scan is interrupted that used the –randomize_hosts option, nmap has no method to recreate the same randomness that was used in the initial scan. Hence it may repeat some scan and may skip some of the hosts. So don’t use it with –randomize_hosts option.

 

 

Few options which generally should always be included in all scans are:

-vv             verbose mode

-n               speeds up the scan and log is maintained on the DNS servers.

-oA            to get output files so that scan can be resumed.

--excludefile           It should be update with the most important IP addresses.

 

I’m leaving the various options of packet tuning and timing options as they should be considered as advanced techniques and this tutorial is for beginners specially.

 

I would write one more article in this series containing thing which must be and must not be done using Nmap.

 

 

Reference: Nmap man pages and “Secrets of Network Cartography” by James Messer

 

 

 

--|3O|\||)--

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